The Five God Dragons have existed since the year X633 at the latest, the same year that the first Mage Guild, Magia Dragon, was created. They gained the description of "gods" due to the fear they struck in the humans who overheard their evil deeds over time, as well as each individual Dragon's insurmountable strength, said to rival (and later surpass) that of Acnologia, one of the most powerful and feared beings in Earth Land.
In the past, the Five God Dragons fled to Guiltina in order to escape Acnologia, only to later figure out that their powers continuously grew even beyond the Dragon King himself. The dragon gods remain stationary unless something "big" occurs, upon which they could potentially create a calamity. Because of their hidden existence and lack of involvement in the Dragon King Festival, very few people have known of their existence. The five Gods have not all met together at once, leading them to not know everything about one another or even their whereabouts, given that Mercuphobia himself did not know much of anything of Viernes.
The five of them are all implied by Ignia to possess Transformation Magic, allowing them to assume a human form with a likeness to their Dragon counterpart. It has been noted that while Dragons have the ability to transform to an extent, it is not as common given powerful Dragons such as Igneel never used Transformation Magic.
After Elefseria's effort to subdue them by learning Dragon Slayer Magic was met with failure, he requested powerful mages from other guilds to carry out the task of sealing them away. Prior to Team Natsu's acceptance of the job, 98 failed attempts have been made over the course of at least 160 years, with only Gildarts Clive managing to return from the mission alive after being maimed by Acnologia (who he mistook for a God Dragon), causing him to realize the hopelessness of defeating them.
- Aldoron: The largest of God Dragons who has the ability to read the minds of others with his powers. Known as the "Wood God Dragon", his size is unrivaled to the point that the largest city of Guiltina rests in the palms of his hands. His powers are connected to five orbs on the surrounding cities across his body, which he asked humans to build upon him 300 years ago.
- Ignia: The son of the Fire Dragon King Igneel, who fostered the orphan child Natsu in conjunction with Zeref's plan. Known as the "Fire God Dragon" for his intense fire, he eventually learned of Acnologia's death at the hands of Natsu and other Dragon Slayers; Natsu being the one he wishes to challenge to a fight to the death to test his own strength.
- Mercuphobia: A large serpent-like Dragon who controls the Water Capital of Ermina and is worshipped as a protector god to its citizens. Known as the "Water God Dragon" for his voluminous water capability, he eventually came across a human girl named Caramille who he grew fond of and later took captivity of her as his assistant.
- Selene: The lone female among the other God Dragons. Known as the "Moon God Dragon", her powers revolve around the power of the stars.
- The God Dragons were originally mentioned by August who claimed they blessed God Serena with power, only for God Serena to then claim that neither they nor Dragon kings exist.
- The Five God Dragons elements originate from the weekdays of "The Seven Luminaries", which are the meaning behind the days of the week from Japanese culture:
- Monday is "Moon Day".
- Tuesday is "Fire Day".
- Wednesday is "Water Day".
- Thursday is "Wood Day".
- Friday is "Gold Day".